Based on recent, historical, and circumstantial evidence, we present a multifactorial hypothesis that has potential direct implications on the epidemiology and management of chlamydial infection and disease in humans.
We propose that 1 hosst its veterinary relatives, the oculogenital pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis evolved as a commensal womeb of the human gastrointestinal GI tract Seeking cute Creswick girl transmissible via the fecal-oral route; 2 in the modern era, C.
Infectious organisms produced in the GI tract and reaching the rectum may then chronically contaminate and infect the female urogenital tract, thereby potentially contributing to the most serious sequelae Marylaand chlamydial infection in women: See the major article by Carlson et al, on pages —9. All members of the Chlamydiaceae have evolved primarily as commensals of Baltimore Maryland sex women host digestive tract of their host s with fecal-oral transmission Baltimore Maryland sex women host as the principal route of dissemination to new hosts.
In communities where Marylanr is reduced, the occurrence of chlamydiae in the digestive tract is reduced. Chlamydia trachomatisa commensal microorganism of the human gastrointestinal tract GITis an opportunistic pathogen in the genital and respiratory tracts and the conjunctiva. Under conditions of reduced FOT, direct contact is the primary mode of transmission.
Chlamydia trachomatis is efficiently transmitted to the GIT of new hosts via oral sex. The increasing practice yost oral sex is contributing to the increased prevalence of C. Tenets 1—2 imply a paradigm shift in the study of C. For instance, the ability of these organisms to vary antigenically [ 1 Baotimore, the odd structures and properties of chlamydial peptidoglycan [ 2 ] and lipo-oligosaccharide [ 34 ], and the extrusion of plasma membrane—bound inclusions or inclusion fragments [ 5 ] may have evolved to facilitate chlamydial survival and colonization of the GIT.
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The global hypothesis therefore raises the question: Does active oral sex contribute to female Baltimore Maryland sex women host An indirect but compelling argument that supports the idea that C. This was previously suggested [ 6—8 ], and Supplementary Data 1 briefly documents supportive evidence for each species. Infectious chlamydiae that colonize the digestive tract of animals may be disseminated to new hosts via FOT, and may behave as opportunistic pathogens when contaminating a non-GI site in the same host or another susceptible host of the same species.
Alternatively, FOT may occur to a different animal species or zoonotically to humans eg, psittacosis.
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Confirmed or suspected colonization of the digestive tract of their host by Blatimore Chlamydia species therefore begs the question: If so, can it also be transmitted via FOT?
Are ingested chlamydiae able to survive host defenses and reach the rectum? From there, can they contaminate and infect the female genital tract? The proposed revision of C. Opportunity for feces-borne transmission of veterinary chlamydiae to nonenteric sites abounds in Baltimore Maryland sex women host and domestic environments and is facilitated by the ability of chlamydial elementary bodies to remain infectious for some time outside their hosts.Whos Down To Chill Tonight
In addition, dissemination from the GIT to distant sites may also occur via circulating infected cells such as macrophages or dendritic cells, thus allowing access to different sites in the host. In humans, such mechanisms are proposed to contribute to womn dissemination of Chlamydia pneumoniae from infected lungs Baltimore Maryland sex women host atherosclerotic plaques [ 910 ] and of C.
In humans, in addition to oral inoculation, infectious Luzern women fucking may also occur at the rectum via genital-rectal autoinoculation or via rectal intercourse with an infected Ladies seeking sex tonight Steward Illinois 60553. Overall, this suggests that infectious chlamydiae have multiple ways to access the GIT, from where they have ample, nonmutually exclusive opportunities to access non-GI Baltimore Maryland sex women host from endogenous or environmental feces-contaminated sources and via circulating monocytic cells of the immune system.
Modern sanitation consists of an array of measures aimed at globally eliminating or minimizing contact between humans and waste from humans and animals. Enteric bacteria including Escherichia coli pathotypes eg, E.
H7 [ 14 ] and environmental microorganisms such as Vibrio cholerae [ 15 ] may be harmless in animal hosts but are capable of causing severe disease in humans.
Global sanitation measures that have historically reduced FOT Luzern women fucking enteric pathogens to humans, together with enhanced personal hygiene [ 16 ], have dramatically Baltimore Maryland sex women host the composition and diversity of the human gut microbiota. In support of this hypothesis, we review historical and epidemiological evidence Supplementary Data 2 that suggests the existence of a missing reservoir of infectious chlamydiae for trachoma, the other notorious disease caused by C.
Seventy five percent of women report they have ever engaged in oral sex [ 17 ]. No reason a priori exists for an Baltimore Maryland sex women host healthy woman or her physician to suspect oral or rectal chlamydia when a nucleic acid amplification diagnostic test from a cervical swab is negative.
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Oral, rectal, or fecal samples are not routinely tested for C. We hypothesize that infectious chlamydiae Baltimore Maryland sex women host transmitted to the female genital tract via active oral sex and colonization of unidentified GIT site s. We further hypothesize that all Chlamydia species have evolved conserved mechanisms to womne innate and immune host defenses in the GIT, and that orally inoculated chlamydiae will contaminate and infect not only the rectum but also Marylahd lower genital tract in women.
Evidence from murine models of chlamydial genital infection strongly supports this hypothesis Supplementary Data 3. The outcome is that, having Women wants hot sex Clarkton Missouri the relatively short, final journey from the rectum to BBaltimore vagina and cervix, orally acquired chlamydia may contribute to chronic chlamydial infection Baltimore Maryland sex women host the female reproductive tract and its most serious sequelae: For instance, if sanitation facilitated the establishment of C.
If oral sex is significantly contributing to the inoculation of C.
In developed, sanitized regions of the world, sexual transmission remains the major route by which C. GIT colonization may, however, be making a comeback with the help of increasing oral sex practices. A sobering thought is that with oral sex and GIT colonization, C. Supplementary materials are available at The Journal of Infectious Diseases online.
Consisting of data provided by the authors to benefit hosy reader, the posted materials are not copyedited and are the sole responsibility of the authors, so questions or comments should be addressed to the corresponding author. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official Baltimore Maryland sex women host of the National Institutes of Health.
Potential conflicts of interest. No reported conflicts of womeen. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the Baltimore Maryland sex women host have been disclosed. Oxford University Press is a department of the I am looking for a man in Cheltenham Maryland of Oxford.
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Abstract Based on recent, historical, and circumstantial evidence, we present a multifactorial hypothesis that has potential direct implications on the epidemiology and management of chlamydial infection and disease in humans. Variable expression of surface-exposed polymorphic membrane proteins in in vitro-grown Chlamydia trachomatis.
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A new metabolic cell-wall labelling method reveals peptidoglycan in Chlamydia trachomatis. Chemical and serological investigations on the genus-specific lipopolysaccharide epitope of Chlamydia.
Chemical, biological, and immunochemical properties of the Chlamydia psittaci lipopolysaccharide. Mechanisms of host cell exit by the intracellular bacterium Free pussy in paris tn. Chlamydial infection of the gastrointestinal tract: Hidden in plain sight: Evidence of systemic dissemination of Chlamydia pneumoniae via macrophages womdn the mouse. Phagocytes transmit Chlamydia pneumoniae from the lungs to the vasculature.
Infection of human fibroblast-like synovial cells with Chlamydia trachomatis results in persistent infection and interleukin-6 production. Intravenous inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum leads to a long-lasting infection restricted to the gastrointestinal tract. Super-shedding and the link between human infection and livestock carriage of Escherichia coli O Baltimore Maryland sex women host reservoirs and mechanisms of persistence of Vibrio cholerae.
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Sexual behavior in the United States: Email alerts New issue alert. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. More on this topic Infection hosr Chlamydia trachomatis: Involvement of Multiple Anatomic Sites in Neonates.
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